It is a fact that management is required in every field of life from an individual’s daily routine life to the overall management of the country. Therefore there is a principle known as universality of management this law states that the management is needed in all types and sizes of the organization, at all organizational levels in all organizational areas and in organization no matter where located. But in modern era management is changing its scope and scale up to a whole new level. It was believed that there are only managers are sole responsible for the whole management and its balance. But now the management power is delegated from upper level to lowest level and everyone is responsible for the performance and management of areas specified to him. In this way an overall image of management arises which is composed of many bricks and every brisk is contributing towards the big picture of organization.
There are found two extreme concepts about managers one is known as omnipotent view, according to this view manager is the person responsible for all the profit and loss of the business, so the impact was organizations enjoying good profit positions rewards the managers in the form of bonuses and awards and on the other hand the managers has to face the music in case company suffers loss.
Another view known as symbolic; says that the growth and the defame of an organizations depend upon the factors which are outside the range and grip of managers the example includes political, law and order situations of a country and the economy growth rate etc. And due to these reason managers cannot be held responsible for the loss of the business. But the reality lies between these two extremes, manager cannot cover all the areas of problem and organization may enjoy good will and good profitability due to other favorable factors.
There are still organizations in which the management system is centralize and due to the traditions or other certain reasons company does not delegate the management authority to its lower level employees. Management is done through a process and the steps include in this process are, planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
First you plan; in this stage you establish goals and aims for the organization. Once the goals are set then strategies are set to achieve those goals these are developed through organizing different works among workers. The next step you will follow is leading; this is very complicated process and needs direct communication with employees and to motivate them so they made their efforts for the interest of business. The final and the last step is controlling; in which the process and the output is measured and compared to certain standards.